Active passive exercises pdf

Active stretching eliminates force and its adverse effects from stretching procedures. Active stretching stimulates and prepares muscles for use during exercise. Active stretches not only stretches the muscles and tissues, but prepares the muscles for the action by activating and warming them active passive exercises pdf. Before describing the principles on which active stretching is based, the terms agonist and antagonist must be clarified.


Agonist refers to actively contracting muscle or muscles while their opposing muscles are termed antagonists. Reciprocal inhibition — While agonist muscles contract, contraction of the opposing antagonist muscles is inhibited. Such as when alternately flexing and extending one’s elbow. Muscle spindles — Sensory nerve endings in muscle detect the change in length of the muscle and its rate of change.

Force applied to a muscle stimulates the muscle spindles which activate protective reflexes resulting in contraction of that muscle. Such as the knee jerk response of neurological testing procedures. While necessary for sports and ordinary motions, this protective reaction is counterproductive for stretching, i. Sir Charles Sherrington conceptualized the principle of reciprocal innervation circa 1904 and demonstrated it circa 1913.

Holt and others wandered from this course, P. Blackburn and others have validated Sherrington’s principle of reciprocal innervation.

Invented in 1998 By Thomas Sheehan of Columbia University. Peters THE FLEXIBILITY MANUAL Sports Kinetics Inc. Electromyographic Activity of Back Musculature During Willams’ Flexion Exercises. PHYSICAL THERAPY, Journal of the American Physical Therapy Association.