Application of genomics pdf

Whole genome alignment is a typical method in comparative genomics. This alignment of eight Yersinia bacteria genomes reveals 78 locally collinear blocks conserved among all eight taxa. Each chromosome has been laid out application of genomics pdf and homologous blocks in each genome are shown as identically colored regions linked across genomes. Regions that are inverted relative to Y.

KIM are shifted below a genome’s center axis. Comparative genomics is a field of biological research in which the genomic features of different organisms are compared.

The genomic features may include the DNA sequence, genes, gene order, regulatory sequences, and other genomic structural landmarks. In this branch of genomics, whole or large parts of genomes resulting from genome projects are compared to study basic biological similarities and differences as well as evolutionary relationships between organisms. The major principle of comparative genomics is that common features of two organisms will often be encoded within the DNA that is evolutionarily conserved between them. Based on these, genome and molecular evolution are inferred and this may in turn be put in the context of, for example, phenotypic evolution or population genetics.

1995, comparative genomics is now a standard component of the analysis of every new genome sequence. With the explosion in the number of genome projects due to the advancements in DNA sequencing technologies, particularly the next-generation sequencing methods in late 2000s, this field has become more sophisticated, making it possible to deal with many genomes in a single study. Comparative genomics has revealed high levels of similarity between closely related organisms, such as humans and chimpanzees, and, more surprisingly, similarity between seemingly distantly related organisms, such as humans and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

It has also showed the extreme diversity of the gene composition in different evolutionary lineages. Comparative genomics has a root in the comparison of virus genomes in the early 1980s.

In 1986, the first comparative genomic study at a larger scale was published, comparing the genomes of varicella-zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus that contained more than 100 genes each. The first complete genome sequence of a cellular organism, that of Haemophilus influenzae Rd, was published in 1995. The second genome sequencing paper was of the small parasitic bacterium Mycoplasma genitalium published in the same year. Starting from this paper, reports on new genomes inevitably became comparative-genomic studies.

The system is called MUMMER and was described in a publication in Nucleic Acids Research in 1999. The system helps researchers to identify large rearrangements, single base mutations, reversals, tandem repeat expansions and other polymorphisms.