Cancer staging manual pdf

In medicine, lung cancer staging is the assessment of the extent to which a cancer staging manual pdf cancer has spread from its original source. As with most cancers, staging is an important determinant of treatment and prognosis. In general, more advanced stages of cancer are less amenable to treatment and have a worse prognosis. The initial evaluation of non-small cell lung cancer staging uses the TNM classification.

This is based on the size of the primary tumor, lymph node involvement, and distant metastasis. This stage group assists with the choice of treatment and estimate of prognosis. There are several methods by which this assessment is made.

PET scans, and invasive techniques such as biopsy and surgery. Clinical staging is performed prior to definitive surgery.

Pathological staging is also called surgical staging and reflects not only the results of non-surgical biopsy, but is evaluated either intra- or post-operatively and is based on the combined results of surgical and clinical findings, including surgical sampling of thoracic lymph nodes. Lung cancer is responsible for 1. 3 million deaths worldwide annually, and is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and the second most common in women. The most common cause of lung cancer is long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.