Criminal law 2 pdf

Criminal Law is the body of law that relates to crime. It proscribes conduct perceived as threatening, harmful, or otherwise endangering to the property, health, safety, and moral welfare of people. Criminal law 2 pdf criminal law is established by statute, which is to say that the laws are enacted by a legislature.


It includes the punishment of people who violate these laws. Criminal law varies according to jurisdiction, and differs from civil law, where emphasis is more on dispute resolution and victim compensation than on punishment. The first civilizations generally did not distinguish between civil law and criminal law. The first written codes of law were designed by the Sumerians.

Another important early code was the Code Hammurabi, which formed the core of Babylonian law. Only fragments of the early criminal laws of Ancient Greece have survived, e. 100,000 criminal trials between 1674 and 1834, including all death penalty cases.

Assault and violent robbery were analogized to trespass as to property. Breach of such laws created an obligation of law or vinculum juris discharged by payment of monetary compensation or damages. After the revival of Roman law in the 12th century, sixth-century Roman classifications and jurisprudence provided the foundations of the distinction between criminal and civil law in European law from then until the present time.

The first signs of the modern distinction between crimes and civil matters emerged during the Norman Invasion of England. The development of the state dispensing justice in a court clearly emerged in the eighteenth century when European countries began maintaining police services.

From this point, criminal law had formalized the mechanisms for enforcement, which allowed for its development as a discernible entity. Criminal law is distinctive for the uniquely serious potential consequences or sanctions for failure to abide by its rules.

Every crime is composed of criminal elements. Capital punishment may be imposed in some jurisdictions for the most serious crimes.