Fundamentals of pharmacology bullock pdf

Principles of Medicinal Chemistry by William Fundamentals of pharmacology bullock pdf. Organic Chemistry by william H.


Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry -Beale J. An antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity, used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach. Antacids are available over the counter and are taken by mouth to quickly relieve occasional heartburn, the major symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease and also indigestion.

Treatment with antacids alone is symptomatic and only justified for minor symptoms. Antacids are distinct from acid-reducing drugs like H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors and they do not kill the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, which causes most ulcers.

Versions with magnesium may cause diarrhea, and brands with calcium or aluminium may cause constipation and rarely, long-term use may cause kidney stones. Long-term use of versions with aluminium may increase the risk for getting osteoporosis. When excessive amounts of acids are produced in the stomach the natural mucous barrier that protects the lining of the stomach can damage the esophagus in people with acid reflux. Antacids contain alkaline ions that chemically neutralize stomach gastric acid, reducing damage and relieving pain.

Antacids may be formulated with other active ingredients such as simethicone to control gas or alginic acid to act as a physical barrier to acid. Effervescent tablets are tablets which are designed to dissolve in water, and release carbon dioxide.

The common ingredients are citric acid and sodium bicarbonate, which react when in contact with water to produce carbon dioxide. Effervescent antacids may also contain aspirin, sodium carbonate, or tartaric acid.

Well known brands are Alka-Seltzer in the United States, and Eno in the United Kingdom. Wyeth amphojel tablets of aluminum hydroxide. Under the generic name algeldrate, aluminium hydroxide is used as an antacid. 3, being insoluble, does not increase the pH of stomach above 7 and hence, does not trigger secretion of excess stomach acid.