The “modified biophysical manual of diagnostic ultrasound volume 1 pdf” consists of the NST and amniotic fluid index only. The NST evaluates fetal heart rate and response to fetal movement. Use of vibroacoustic stimulation to accelerate evaluation has been described. Each assessment is graded either 0 or 2 points, and then added up to yield a number between 0 and 10.
A BPP of 8 or 10 is generally considered reassuring. A BPP normally is not performed before the second half of a pregnancy, since fetal movements do not occur in the first half. Biophysical profile for fetal assessment in high risk pregnancies”.
Title: Diagnostic Ultrasound, Volume: 2, Issue: 1 of The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice, Author: Norman W.
Publisher: Jaypee Brothers Publishers, 1986. Using fetal acoustic stimulation to shorten the biophysical profile”. Lancaster General Hospital, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Not to be confused with Supersonic. Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing. Ultrasound is used in many different fields. Ultrasonic devices are used to detect objects and measure distances.
Ultrasound imaging or sonography is often used in medicine. In the nondestructive testing of products and structures, ultrasound is used to detect invisible flaws.
Industrially, ultrasound is used for cleaning, mixing, and to accelerate chemical processes. Animals such as bats and porpoises use ultrasound for locating prey and obstacles. Scientist are also studying ultrasound using graphene diaphragms as a method of communication. Acoustics, the science of sound, starts as far back as Pythagoras in the 6th century BC, who wrote on the mathematical properties of stringed instruments.
Echolocation in bats was discovered by Lazzaro Spallanzani in 1794, when he demonstrated that bats hunted and navigated by inaudible sound and not vision. Francis Galton in 1893 invented the Galton whistle, an adjustable whistle which produced ultrasound, which he used to measure the hearing range of humans and other animals, demonstrating that many animals could hear sounds above the hearing range of humans.