There are two central claims of the NSM theory. First, that the rise of the post-industrial economy is responsible for a new wave of social movement and second, that those movements new social movements in india pdf significantly different from previous social movements of the industrial economy. Thinkers have related these movements with the postmaterialism hypothesis and New Class Model as put forth by Ronald Inglehart. Numerous social movements from mid-1960s differed from their precursors, such as the labor movement, which had previously been seen as focused on economic concerns.
It is important to highlight, however, that it is currently being discussed whether this phenomenon was the first example of a new social movement or as Staricco has stated: “It did not so much open an era as close one. It was not the beginning of a paradigm, but the end of another one. The new movements instead of pushing for specific changes in public policy emphasize social changes in identity, lifestyle and culture.
Thus the social aspect is seen by the NSM as more important than the economic or political aspects. Some NSM theorists, like F. Unlike pressure groups that have a formal organisation and ‘members’, NSMs consist of an informal, loosely organised social network of ‘supporters’ rather than members.
New Social Movements as ‘relatively disorganised’. Protest groups tend to be single issue based and are often local in terms of the scope of change they wish to effect. A NSM may, however adopt the tactic of a protest campaign as part of its strategy for achieving wider-ranging change. Examples of those new movements include the women’s movement, the ecology movement, gay rights movement and various peace movements, among others.
Buechler argues that there is in fact no single new social movement theory, but a set of new social movement theories, each a variant on a general approach to “something called new social movement”, which he cautiously defines as a “diverse array of collective actions that has presumably displaced the old social movement of proletarian revolution”. Important contributors in the field include sociologists such as Alain Touraine, Ernesto Laclau, Chantal Mouffe, Claus Offe, Immanuel Wallerstein, Manuel Castells or philosophers such as Michel Foucault, Jürgen Habermas and Félix Guattari. The most noticeable feature of new social movements is that they are primarily social and cultural and only secondarily, if any, political.
Departing from the worker’s movement, which was central to the political aim of gaining access for the working class with the extension of citizenship and representation, new social movements such as youth culture movement concentrate on bringing about social mobilization through cultural innovations, development of new life-styles and transformation of identities. This can be exemplified in the gay liberation, the focus of which broadens out from political issue to social and cultural realization and acceptance of homosexuality.
Hence, new social movements are understood as new because they are first and foremost social. New social movements also give rise to a great emphasis on the role of post-material values in contemporary and post-industrial society as opposed to conflicts over material resources. According to Melucci, one of the leading new social movement theorists, these movements arise not from relations of production and distribution of resources but within the sphere of reproduction and the life world, as a result of which, the concern has shifted from the sole production of economic resources directly connected to the needs for survival or for reproduction to cultural production of social relations, symbols and identities.
In other words, the contemporary social movements are rejections of the materialistic orientation of consumerism in capitalist societies by questioning the modern idea that links the pursuit of happiness and success closely to growth, progress and increased productivity and by promoting alternative values and understandings in relation to the social world. Moreover, with its little concern to directly challenge the state, new movements are regarded as anti-authoritarian and resisted incorporation in institutional levels.
They tend to focus on single issue, or a limited range of issues connected to a single broad theme such as peace and environment. Without the attempt to develop a total politics under a single focus, new social movements set their stress on grass-roots in the aim of representing the interests of marginal or excluded groups.