Newks job application pdf

For its use as a musical instrument, see Turntablism. The phonograph is a device, invented in 1877, for newks job application pdf mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.


The sound vibration waveforms are recorded as corresponding physical deviations of a spiral groove engraved, etched, incised, or impressed into the surface of a rotating cylinder or disc, called a “record”. To recreate the sound, the surface is similarly rotated while a playback stylus traces the groove and is therefore vibrated by it, very faintly reproducing the recorded sound. In early acoustic phonographs, the stylus vibrated a diaphragm which produced sound waves which were coupled to the open air through a flaring horn, or directly to the listener’s ears through stethoscope-type earphones.

The phonograph was invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison. While other inventors had produced devices that could record sounds, Edison’s phonograph was the first to be able to reproduce the recorded sound. His phonograph originally recorded sound onto a tinfoil sheet wrapped around a rotating cylinder. A stylus responding to sound vibrations produced an up and down or hill-and-dale groove in the foil.

Alexander Graham Bell’s Volta Laboratory made several improvements in the 1880s and introduced the graphophone, including the use of wax-coated cardboard cylinders and a cutting stylus that moved from side to side in a zig zag groove around the record. In the 1890s, Emile Berliner initiated the transition from phonograph cylinders to flat discs with a spiral groove running from the periphery to near the center, coining the term gramophone for disc record players, which is predominantly used in many languages. Later improvements through the years included modifications to the turntable and its drive system, the stylus or needle, and the sound and equalization systems. The disc phonograph record was the dominant audio recording format throughout most of the 20th century.

From the mid-1980s on, phonograph use on a standard record player declined sharply because of the rise of the cassette tape, compact disc and other digital recording formats. Records are still a favorite format for some audiophiles and by DJs and turntablists in hip hop music, electronic dance music and other styles. Vinyl records are still used by some DJs and musicians in their concert performances.

Some electronic dance music DJs and music producers continue to release their recordings on vinyl records. The original recordings of musicians, which may have been recorded on tape or digital methods, are sometimes re-issued on vinyl. In more modern usage, the playback device is often called a “turntable”, “record player”, or “record changer”.

When used in conjunction with a mixer as part of a DJ setup, turntables are often colloquially called “decks”. 1852 The New York Times carried an advertisement for “Professor Webster’s phonographic class”, and in 1859 the New York State Teachers Association tabled a motion to “employ a phonographic recorder” to record its meetings. Arguably, any device used to record sound or reproduce recorded sound could be called a type of “phonograph”, but in common practice the word has come to mean historic technologies of sound recording, involving audio-frequency modulations of a physical trace or groove.

In British English, “gramophone” may refer to any sound-reproducing machine using disc records, which were introduced and popularized in the UK by the Gramophone Company. UK and most Commonwealth countries ever since. The term “phonograph” was usually restricted to machines that used cylinder records.

Gramophone” generally referred to a wind-up machine. In American English, “phonograph”, properly specific to machines made by Edison, was sometimes used in a generic sense as early as the 1890s to include cylinder-playing machines made by others.

But it was then considered strictly incorrect to apply it to Emile Berliner’s upstart Gramophone, a very different machine which played discs. Talking machine” was the comprehensive generic term, but in the early 20th century the general public was increasingly applying the word “phonograph” indiscriminately to both cylinder and disc machines and to the records they played. After electrical disc-playing machines started appearing on the market during the second half of the 1920s, usually sharing the same cabinet with a radio receiver, the term “record player” was increasingly favored by users when referring to the device. Manufacturers, however, typically advertised such combinations as “radio-phonographs”.

By about 1980 the use of a “record changer”, which might damage the stacked discs, was widely disparaged. So, the “turntable” emerged triumphant and retained its position to the end of the 20th century and beyond.