Organic livestock farming pdf

Please forward this error screen to 72. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve organic livestock farming pdf article by adding citations to reliable sources.


Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. All traditional farming is now considered to be “organic farming” although at the time there were no known inorganic methods. For example, forest gardening, a fully organic food production system which dates from prehistoric times, is thought to be the world’s oldest and most resilient agroecosystem. After the industrial revolution had introduced inorganic methods, most of which were not well developed and had serious side effects, an organic movement began in the 1940s as a reaction to agriculture’s growing reliance on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.

The history of this modern revival of organic farming dates back to the first half of the 20th century at a time when there was a growing reliance on these new synthetic, non-organic methods. The first 40 years of the 20th century saw simultaneous advances in biochemistry and engineering that rapidly and profoundly changed farming. The introduction of the gasoline-powered internal combustion engine ushered in the era of the tractor and made possible hundreds of mechanized farm implements.

Research in plant breeding led to the commercialization of hybrid seed. And a new manufacturing process made nitrogen fertilizer — first synthesized in the mid-19th century — affordably abundant. 1900, it took one farmer to feed 2. 5 people, but currently the ratio is 1 to well over 100.

Fields grew bigger and cropping more specialized to make more efficient use of machinery. The reduced need for manual labour and animal labour that machinery, herbicides, and fertilizers made possible created an era in which the mechanization of agriculture evolved rapidly.

The British botanist Sir Albert Howard is often referred to as the father of modern organic agriculture, because he was the first to apply modern scientific knowledge and methods to traditional agriculture. From 1905 to 1924, he and his wife Gabrielle, herself a plant physiologist, worked as agricultural advisers in Pusa, Bengal, where they documented traditional Indian farming practices and came to regard them as superior to their conventional agriculture science. Their research and further development of these methods is recorded in his writings, notably, his 1940 book, An Agricultural Testament, which influenced many scientists and farmers of the day.

In Germany, Rudolf Steiner’s development, biodynamic agriculture, was probably the first comprehensive system of what we now call organic farming. Steiner emphasized the farmer’s role in guiding and balancing the interaction of the animals, plants and soil. His system was based on his philosophy of anthroposophy rather than a good understanding of science. To develop his system of farming, Steiner established an international research group called the Agricultural Experimental Circle of Anthroposophical Farmers and Gardeners of the General Anthroposophical Society.