Recycling of materials in civil engineering pdf

Tires are among most problematic sources of waste. Progress in recycling has resulted in a major reduction in dumping. Tire recycling, or rubber recycling, is the process of recycling waste tires that are no longer suitable for use on vehicles recycling of materials in civil engineering pdf to wear or irreparable damage.


These tires are a challenging source of waste, due to the large volume produced, the durability of the tires, and the components in the tire that are ecologically problematic. Because they are highly durable and non-biodegradable, tires can consume valued space in landfills. In 1990, it was estimated that over 1 billion scrap tires were in stockpiles in the United States. As of 2015, only 67 million tires remain in stockpiles.

Newer technology, such as pyrolysis and devulcanization, has made tires suitable targets for recycling despite their bulk and resilience. Aside from use as fuel, the main end use for tires remains ground rubber. Product developments and innovations such as improved compounds and camber tire shaping increase tire life, increments of replacement, consumer safety, and reduce tire waste.

Proper manufacturing and quality of delivery reduces waste at production. Direct distribution through retailers, reduces inventory time and ensures that the life span and the safety of the products are explained to customers.

Consumers’ use and maintenance choices like tire rotation affect tire wear and safety of operation. Manufacturers and retailers set policies on return, retread, and replacement to reduce the waste generated from tires and assume responsibility for taking the ‘tire to its grave’ or to its reincarnation.