Deception can involve dissimulation, propaganda, and sleight of hand, as well as distraction, camouflage, or concealment. The art of deception pdf is also self-deception, as in bad faith.
Deception is a major relational transgression that often leads to feelings of betrayal and distrust between relational partners. Deception violates relational rules and is considered to be a negative violation of expectations. Most people expect friends, relational partners, and even strangers to be truthful most of the time.
If people expected most conversations to be untruthful, talking and communicating with others would require distraction and misdirection to acquire reliable information. A significant amount of deception occurs between some romantic and relational partners. It also forms a vital part of psychological warfare in denial and deception. Deception includes several types of communications or omissions that serve to distort or omit the complete truth.
Examples of deception range from false statements to misleading claims in which relevant information is omitted, leading the receiver to infer false conclusions. For example, a claim that ‘sunflower oil is beneficial to brain health due to the presence of omega-3 fatty acids’ may be misleading, as it leads the receiver to believe sunflower oil will benefit brain health more so than other foods.
In fact, sunflower oil is relatively low in omega-3 fatty acids and is not particularly good for brain health, so while this claim is technically true, it leads the receiver to infer false information. Deception itself is intentionally managing verbal or nonverbal messages so that the message receiver will believe in a way that the message sender knows is false.